All posts by Brian Stoner

“The power of 10: Ten astonishing facts about 10-year-old girls.”


Investments in health, education and empowerment of 10-year-old girls can triple a girl’s lifetime income.  This and 9 other facts about adolescent girls are highlighted in this United Nations Population Fund Report summary.  The full report on the State of World Population 2016 emphasizes that the welfare of these girls will have an enabling impact on the Sustainable Development Goals unanimously adopted by the United Nations in 2015.

In the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge, our team and partners at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have a commitment to developing sanitation solutions for men and women, girls and boys, however in many parts of the developing world that lack access to safe and effective sanitation, gender discrimination disproportionately impacts women and girls.  We believe that by focusing on the needs of adolescent girls, empowering them with better options, a virtuous cycle will be created that improves overall quality of life for girls, their families, and generations to come.

Below is a short video about a 12-year-old girl in India, highlighting the importance of including women and girls directly in the product design, education and business aspects of providing sanitation solutions.

RTI prepares toilet system for March 2014 fair in Delhi India


The integrated toilet system with solid waste processing and liquid disinfection modules integrated underneath

RTI prepares its first generation Reinvent the Toilet processing system for the 2014 Toilet Fair in Delhi, India. The system includes a custom-designed squat plate by Roca Sanitario and a self-contained waste treatment system. The open-lid on the right, shows the solid waste combustion unit that exhausts to a stove-pipe running up the right side of the system.

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Roca Sanitario develops ultra low flush squat plate

Roca Engineering Team

Roca toilet engineering team with Brian Stoner (RTI) demonstrate novel squat plate

Roca engineers have developed an ultra low-flush squat plate to go with RTI’s toilet processing modules. This novel squat plate is designed to operate with 1.5 liters of water, maintaining an effective water seal and minimizing odors. This latest advancement in toilet technology is an essential part of the strategy to bring effective sanitation to regions that lack sewage infrastructure. The squat plate dispenses into a solid-liquid separator that converts solid waste into burnable fuel and electrochemically disinfects the liquid for flush recycling and non-potable uses.  The video below shows a 1.5 liter laboratory test-flush using simulated specimens.

Disinfection of Fecal-Contaminated Urine (update)

Plated Specimens from Before and After Processing

Plated specimens from before and after electrochemical treatment of fecal-contaminated urine (human)

The first series of tests used 16 liters of human urine mixed with 0.5 %wt of human feces. This represents a significant milestone in demonstrating the liquid disinfection capabilities of the system using actual human-derived specimens. Future tests will focus on evaluating energy consumed during disinfection and further process optimization.

Liquid Processing Team testing with human urine contaminated with human feces

The RTI Liquid Processing Team prepares the system for disinfection tests with human urine and feces.

Collection tank showing fecal-contaminated urine before processing

Collection tanks holding the fecal-contaminated urine before processing.

The baffled collection tanks allow solids to settle and dissolve prior to entering the process module, eliminating the need for prefiltering the liquid before entering the electrochemical cell. Based on preliminary observations, the 0.5% fecal load represents a worst case for fecal contamination in the urine. Future experiments will evaluate nominal and peak-loading scenarios.

Solid Waste Drying and Sizing with Helical Auger

The first stage of the solid waste processing module consists of an auger-based dryer/conveyer unit.

The auger is a helical screw device Jerseys designed to move and dry the feces before and converting Abra it into solid fuel for combustion. Heat from in the combustion process accelerates drying, wholesale nfl jerseys while mechanical apertures along the auger length generate cheap nba jerseys burnable sized pellets of uniform wholesale jerseys size. This video shows some preliminary sizing experiments performed using Bill miso paste as a surrogate. Uniform sizing facilitates combustion and optimum How energy conversion on the back end of the solid waste processing module.